I have a delightful little edition of The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis published by the Bombay Saint Paul Society in 1998 and with an Imprimatur by the Bishop of Allahabad. It includes reflections from the documents of Vatican II for each chapter. The original documents show the influence of Karl Rahner, the German Jesuit theologian (1904 –1984). The reflections are referenced by abbreviations. I've correlated these abbreviations to the original documents as follows:
AL Apostolate of the Laity Apostolicam Actuositatem
DC Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium
DE Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio
DM Decree on Missionary Activity Ad Gentes
DR Divine Revelation Dei Verbum
NC Non-Christian Religions Nostra Aetate
PC Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes
PM Decree on Ministry Presbyterorum Ordinis
RF Religious Freedom Dignitatis Humanae
RR Renewal of Religious Life Perfectae Caritatis
SC Decree on the Media Inter Mirifica
SL Sacred Liturgy Sacrosanctum Concilium
Friday, 23 June 2017
Britain Yearly Meeting has published a further document in the New Economy Series, this one being entitled The Role of Markets in the New Economy. In my opinion it has three shortcomings:
Bias against the present.The paper itself says the UK has well funded and organised public services, raising the question why entirely new economic principles are needed at all. The UK is a mixed economy in which private enterprise and public services are in a dynamic balance. This balance is, by the paper’s own implicit admission, not fundamentally awry. No doubt adjustments, by political or administrative means or through market mechanisms, are needed from time to time, but this is not a matter for the Religious Society of Friends nor one on which the Society has any expertise. It also needs to be remembered that it is the job of governments to make difficult decisions and that there is no magic money tree.
Bias against corporationsThere is a bias is against corporations and in favour of the anti-corporatist lobby. This is manifest in dark talk about for-profit organisations and double-talk about increasing democratic participation in the economy. Private corporations need to make a profit in order to pay their investors, and they make an immeasurable contribution to modern life. Where would we be without Google and Amazon? Of course, some behave badly and don’t pay their taxes, but that is true of other people too.
Double talk about democracyAs for democracy, there is a lot of it about – too much some would say, in the wake of the EU Referendum. The pamphlet relies on the campaign group We Own It, which consists of left-wing academics with no experience of government or business, and trade-unionists. Their call for greater democratic and community involvement in the economy is largely double-talk for trade union power. Even the apparently innocuous word 'community' can be a cover for self-serving factions. Trade unions' proper concern is their members’ interests and they do not speak for citizens, consumers or the electorate. Self-appointed community spokespeople have a place but it is below that of elected representatives such as local councillors.
The New Economy ProjectI continue to believe it is wrong of BYM to have embarked on the left-wing New Economy Project. Quaker socialists already have their own special interest group within the Society, as well as being free to act in secular organisations such as the Labour Party or Green Party. Too often BYM seems a univocal organisation in which the liberal political tradition of Quakers goes unrecognised. That this year's Swarthmore Lecture, as well as the Salter Lecture, are both being given by professional left-wingers is evidence.
Monday, 12 June 2017
Thomas Edmund ‘Ted’ Harvey was born in Leeds of a prominent Quaker family in 1875. A leading figure of his time, he was a politician and social reformer as well as the author of poetry, fiction and of religious, biographical, historical and spiritual works. It was said that his spoken ministry was profound yet simple. He was educated at Bootham’s School and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he got a first in Literae Humaniores. He worked briefly for the British Museum and then was a local government councillor in London and Warden of Toynbee Hall, a university settlement in the East End of London. During the First World War he was an MP for the Liberal Party and in 1916 was one of two Quaker MP’s who successfully pressed for conscientious objectors to be (conditionally) exempted from military conscription. He then helped administer the system for placing conscientious objectors in alternative work of national importance. Later he wrote of how ‘a state in the midst of a great war recognised the right of conscience, at any rate in principle, for its individual citizens’. He was involved in Quaker relief work on the continent during and after the First World War. His Swarthmore Lecture of 1921, The Long Pilgrimage, is an exposition of the idea and reality of human progress in the light of Christian hope and echoes many of the themes in his A Wayfarer’s Faith of 1913. The vision in the Lecture is a grand one, of human progress driven by a Christian idea of the value of human ‘personality’ (a term in widespread use amongst thinkers at the time). Harvey returned to Parliament as an Independent during the Second World War and died in 1955.
I am starting a research degree on Harvey. The aim is to produce a comprehensive biography covering his life and work as a Quaker politician, activist and author, attempting to show how his faith informed his story and to illustrate the description of him as a Quaker citizen. In addition, the aim would be to show how his religious writings expressed what I am tentatively calling catholic Quakerism. I want to explore how far Harvey exemplifies the pragmatic insider and the notion of the Quaker citizen. The Quaker citizen (as a working definition) discerns the difference between corporate faith in action sanctifying the person, which Harvey himself seems to have thought the essence of the Religious Society of Friends, and involvement in secular politics, which on one view is not faith in action as such. Harvey’s words at 23.88 of QF&P are thematic and the idea of Quaker citizenship also finds expression in Advices & Queries 34 .
He was influenced by the catholic tradition as well as by his classic education. For example, the preface to The Long Pilgrimage is a quote from St Augustine, and the body of the lecture shows the influence of von Hugel, the Catholic theologian, the early Fathers and the medieval saints. He hardly ever mentions George Fox. His interest in European Christianity is further and delightfully expressed in Stolen Aureoles (1922), which I would describe as a collection of fabulist hagiographies. Indeed, his literary style is such that I wonder whether I could call him the poet or cantor of Quakerism